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Military Authority

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU / R. de Koeyer, J. Rijken
 
Time period: 1944-1945
Number of interviews: 3
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: no
Period of interviews: 1970

Medium: 4 sound tapes

Zeeuws archief

 

Film footage of the destruction of Zeeuws-Vlaanderen (1944 Sep.-Oct.), the liberation of Middelburg (1944 Nov.) and the destruction of Koewacht by a V1 (1945 Mar.), 1944-1945.

The interviews were made for the doctoral thesis on history (RUU) of R. de Koeyer under the (probable) title Het Militair Gezag in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen.
P. de Bruyne was First Additional Officer Military Authority in Zeeuws-Vlaanderen in 1944-45

W. de Kok was interned by order of the MG in 1944-45 on charges of sympathising with the NSB

C.W. Slot (vice-admiral b.d.) held the position of provincial commissioner of Zeeland at the MG.

 

Interviewees:

  • P. de Bruyne
  • W. de Kok
  • C.W. Slot

Illegality

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU / R.L. Schuursma. P. Verhoeven
 
Time period: 1940-1945
Number of interviews: 3
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: summary
Period of interviews: 1967

Medium: 8 sound tapes
 

Interviewees:

  • J.M. van Ameijde
  • H.A. Das
  • S.S.P. de Man

 

Interviewer: R.L. Schuursma, P. Verhoeven

 

For more information on the interviews and interviewees, see: Film and Science Foundation (SFW) working edition no. 8 (1995), pp. 1, 10, 32.

Roman Catholicism

Verkiezingsbord voor KVP in 1963
Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU / Albert Brouwers
 
Time period: 1948-1972
Number of interviews: 2
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: nee
Period of interviews: 1985

Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization, can be requested through Sound & Vision.

 

However, the following item cán be found in DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid:

  • Marga Klompé, Portrait of Marga Klompé, ex-Minister of CRM. Interviews with her and various archive images related to her political career. Broadcasted 06-05-1984 at the KRO
Medium: 1 sound tape
 

The interviews with Marga Klompé (1912-1986) and Joseph Luns (born 1911) were conducted for a doctoral thesis on Roman Catholicism and KVP politics in the Netherlands. Klompé became a member of parliament for the KVP in the late 1940s and also held several international positions. In the 1950s and 1960s, she was minister – the first woman in the Netherlands – of Social Work and CRM respectively in several cabinets. Later, she developed many activities the church peace movements. The KVP-er Luns held the foreign ministry continuously from 1956 to 1971. In 1972, he became secretary-general of NATO. Shortly afterwards, he resigned from the KVP.

Determined…

VPRO / H.J.A. Hofland, Hans Verhagen, Sytze van der Zee
 
Time period: 1938-1948
Number of interviews: 24
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: yes
Period of interviews: 1974

Medium: 28 sound tapes

part 1

part 2

part 3

part 4

 

Vastberaden maar soepel en met mate, 1938-1948. Herinneringen aan Nederland

Auteurs : H.J.A, Hofland, Hans Keller / Hans Verhagen

Uitgever : Atlas Contact B.V., 1976
ISBN : 9789025420376

A historiography of the Netherlands from 1938 to 1948 based on interviews with mostly ordinary people about the crisis years, the brief revival from 1938, WWII and the decolonisation of Indonesia interspersed with archive material including feature film and sound clips.

From the 1970s, there had been a shift in perspective on WWII. It was no longer good to beat oneself up and only point the accusing finger at the collaborator, the Nazi or the criminal.

This change was reflected in the 1974 VPRO documentary. It focused on the failure of the authorities and the mental kinship of collaborators and ‘ordinary’ citizens. The story is an ‘anti-epic’ of confusion, self-interest, doubt, helplessness and absurdity.

 

The interviews were made for the VPRO production Vastberaden, maar soepel en met mate. Memories of the Netherlands 1938-1948, by H.J.A. Hofland, Hans Keller and Hans Verhagen. Television broadcast took place on 15 October 1974 (2 hours 55 mins). An edited version was broadcast on 29 June 1977 and repeated on 27 August 1989.
The interviewees recount their memories of the last pre-war years, the Second World War and the first post-war period from the different positions they held at the time. Sometimes they are authorities such as the politicians Burger and Schermerhorn, the historian Bouman, the communist resistance fighter Gortzak and also the press chief of Reichskommissar Seyss-Inquart, Willi Janke. In addition, however, several ‘ordinary people’ are featured, on whose history in and around the war the producers were particularly keen to emphasise. Examples include the Amsterdam-based Ms de Bruin and her friend, the resistance fighter De Graaf, the NSB member J.B. and the German soldiers stationed in the Netherlands during the occupation. Rasterhof, Van der Schaaf, Scheps and Slui give their views on the so-called Schokking affair. Mr F.M.A. Schokking was mayor of Hazerswoude during wartime and played a role in the arrest of the Jewish family Pino. After the war, he became mayor of The Hague until the affair was raised and forced him to resign. At Slui’s house, the Pino’s had spent some time in hiding during the war.
Most of the interviews were conducted by Hans Verhagen. Sytze van der Zee also participated in the interview with Willi Janke. The interview with Van Walsum – ultimately not included in the documentary – was conducted by Henk Hofland.

The makers of the documentary published a book containing (some of) the texts from the television film: Determined but Supple and Moderate. Herinneringen aan Nederland 1938-1948, Amsterdam: Contact, 1976. Keller and Hofland provided the book with introductory articles, chronicling the general principles of and practical preparations for production. The book is available at SFW.
Chris Vos analysed the documentary in his article ‘An indifferent history? The significance of the VPRO documentary Vastberaden, maar soepel en met mate for Dutch audiovisual historiography’, in: Jaarboek Mediageschiedenis 5, Amsterdam: Stichting Mediageschiedenis/Stichting beheer IISG, 1993, pp. 227-260. He did the same in his dissertation Television and Occupation. Een onderzoek naar de documentaire verbeelding van de tweede Wereldoorlog in Nederland, Hilversum: Verloren, 1995, pp. 128-153.
In 1989, the documentary was repeated as part of the VPRO series TVTOEN. or: How Dutch television writes history. There, the makers talked about the making of the film, their underlying ideas, the Schokking affair and (former prime minister) de Quay refusing an interview.

 

Interviewee(s): Henriette de Beaufort, H. Blok, Ms de Bruin and Ms Anchelon, Prof P.J. Bouman, Mr J.A.W. Burger, Henk Gortzak, Willi Janke, J.B. (initials only), Cas de Graaf, Mr P.J. and Ms Kruger[s], B.J.
Kouw, Gerrit Kouwenaar, J. Osten, L. Rasterhof, S.J. van der Schaaf, prof. W. Schermerhorn, Daan Slui, G.E. van Walsum, Lex van Weren, mr. J.C. de Wit, J.H. Scheps, mr. Kwiet, 2 (anonymous) German soldiers, 5 ‘border residents’

Camp Amersfoort

Kamp Amersfoort: Hekwerken, barak, uitkijktoren (cc – Anefo – Sem Presser)
VPRO / Hans Verhagen
 
Time period: 1939-1969
Number of interviews: 25
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: yes
Period of interviews: 1977-1978

Medium: 12 sound tapes

Geschiedenis van een Plek, concentratiekamp Amersfoort

Authors: Armando, Hans Verhagen en Maud Keus

De Bezige Bij, 1980

ISBN: 9789023452683

The interviews were made for the three-hour documentary film History of a Place, which Hans Verhagen made together with Armando in 1978 for VPRO television about the concentration camp Amersfoort (municipality of Leusden). They approach their subject as the history of the (‘guilty’) site. Discussed are: the origins of the camp in 1939 as an army site for mobilised Dutch soldiers, its function as the German occupier’s concentration camp during World War II, its use as a repatriation camp the first months after liberation and as an internment camp for Dutch SS and NSB members immediately afterwards, its demolition in the late 1960s in favour of the new building for the De Boskamp Police Training Centre. The focus, however, is on the period when the camp served as a concentration camp for the German occupiers. The film was broadcast as the final episode of the series Het gat van Nederland, on 14 May 1978. Many of the interviews are partly conducted walking, including a film camera, through the area around the camp.
As ex-prisoners, Van Dam, Kleinveld, Molenaar, Zoetmulder, Wolders, Van den Burg, Van den Berg, Robeer, chaplain Slots and Schols recount their experiences in the camp. They had mostly ended up there because of resistance activities. They talk about the camp executioners Berg and Kotälla, among others. Also
The following are also interviewed: the contractor who built the barracks in 1939 (Herzinger); the caretaker of the cemetery near the camp, who buried the dead from the camp but also smuggled the living from the site (Jansen); a municipal worker from Leusden who helped prisoners escape whenever possible,
sending letters etcetera (Schut); the son of the owner of Hotel Oud-Leusden, which had been requisitioned by the Germans during the occupation period and was located right next to the camp (Jets); the house painter who painted the barracks both in 1939 and in 1945, shortly after liberation (Van Hoven); the camp’s Amersfoort vegetable supplier (Van Zomeren); the demolisher of the last barracks in the late 1960s (Van Essen); the German Engbrocks, who had been living in the Netherlands for some time before the war, and who was trained as a punishment to become an SS camp guard in Amersfoort in 1941, and was called the “good German” by many prisoners because he tried to help them the employee of the Dutch Red Cross Van Overheem, who, especially in the last year of the war, tried to get as many food parcels into the camp as possible and who was called the ‘white angel of Amersfoort’ by the prisoners (she also played an important role in the camp in the few months it served as a repatriation centre for Dutch people returning from Germany); the camp commander after the liberation (Van Zwol); the director of the Police Training School De Boskamp, whose institute was established on the site in the late 1960s (Steenlaar); some unnamed students and a sports teacher from the police training school on the past of the site in short interviews.

 

Interviewees: Frans van de Berg, Jan van den Burg, N. van Dam, Willy Engbrocks, R. van Essen, H. Hertzinger, A. van Hoven, Evert Jansen, Martin Jets, Gerrit Kleinveld, Rev. O. Molenaar, mrs. van Overheem, Henk Robeer, Joep Schols, Arie Schut, Jean Slots, M. van Steenlaar, Hans Wolders, S.H.A.M. Zoetmulder, A. van Zomeren, C. van Zwol, some anonymous persons.

Dutch East Indies

Aankomst Johan van Oldenbarneveldt met repatrianten in Amsterdam, Bestanddeelnr 909-4259
Dick Verkijk
 
Number of interviews: 24
Accessibility: restricted
Transcripts: summary
Period of interviews: 1971

Medium: 5 geluidsbanden
 

The interview series involves mostly short conversations (ranging from four to 40 minutes) with Dutch East Indies people. They discuss their arrival in the Netherlands and their assimilation into Dutch
society. The material was used for an NOS radio programme, broadcast in March 1971.

 

Interviewer(s): Dick Verkijk

 

Number of interviewees: 27

Oort, K. Pavilcek, father and son Pietersz, Mr Pratacik, Coen Pronk, Mr de Riemer, Mr Robinson, Dr H. Ruiter, J. Sluyters, Prof J.D. Spekman, Mr and Mrs Tielman, de Vries

Anton Mussert

Paul Verhoeven
 
Time period: 1910-1946
Number of interviews: 16
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: summary
Period of interviews: 1967

Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization, however, can be requested through Sound & Vision.

 

The following items cán be found in DAAN, the digital archive of Sound & Vision:

  • Two of the 16 interviews, the interview with F. Rost van Tonningen and with E.J. Roskam;
  • Portrait of Anton Adriaan Mussert, a film by Paul Verhoeven;
  • Anton Mussert, a 1966 university film, a compilation of excerpts from propaganda films.

 

Medium: 6 geluidsbanden
 

The interviews were made on behalf of Verhoeven’s film Portret van Anton Adriaan Mussert (1968, 16mm, 55′), in the composition of which Hans Keller and Leo Kool also collaborated.
It was broadcast by VPRO television on 16 April 1970 and repeated on 20 August 1989 as part of the series TVTOEN. or: How Dutch television writes history, which also covered the problems surrounding the first broadcast. These are also described when discussing the film in Chris Vos, Television and Occupation. A study of the documentary portrayal of World War II in the Netherlands, Hilversum: Verloren, 1995, pp.126-127.
Film and the interviews outline the life course of Mussert (1894-1946): his HBS days; studying civil engineering at the Technical High School in Delft; his work at the Provincial Water Authority in Utrecht, since 1921 as engineer and later as chief engineer director until his resignation in 1934; the importance of his activities as secretary of the committee against the 1925 Belgo-Dutch Treaty for his further political ambitions; the establishment of the NSB in 1931; his role within the NSB and that during the German occupation; his arrest in May 1945; his internment in the penal prison at Scheveningen; the trial in November 1945; his execution on 7 May 1946.

 

Dibbits was a colleague of Mussert’s at Rijkswaterstaat.
As chief inspector after the war, Van Dien was in charge of supervising Mussert during his internment.
Hartman was an admirer of Mussert and fought on the Eastern Front during World War II.
Kleijn was a classmate of Mussert’s.
Knigge, De Lange and Lemoin[e] had joined the Dutch SS, founded by Mussert, during the occupation. Knigge and Lemoin[e] also fought on the Eastern Front.
Koren was a colleague of Mussert’s at Rijkswaterstaat. Among other things, he talks about the relationship between Mussert and Van Geelkerken, with whom Mussert founded the NSB in 1931 and who also worked at
Rijkswaterstaat.
Krabbendam was the commander of the arrest teams of the Internal Armed Forces (BS), which arrested Mussert on 7 May 1945.
Van der Laan was a teacher of Mussert at the HBS in Gorkum.
Roskam was the peasant leader of the NSB.
F. Rost van Tonningen had been a member of the NSB since 1936 as youth leader and, since 1941, the wife of Mussert’s rival the NSB leader Meinoud Rost van Tonningen. She talks about Mussert’s motives and the relationship between him and her husband.
Schermerhorn studied at the TH in Delft at about the same time as Mussert; both graduated in 1918, albeit in different fields of study. In the interview, Schermerhorn talks about the student and engineer Mussert and about the letters the latter wrote him from captivity concerning their personal relationship. Schermerhorn was prime minister of the first post-war national cabinet at the time of Mussert’s execution.
Smit recounts Mussert’s execution.
Van der Vaart Smit was a leader of a Christian circle and secretly a member of the NSB. However, he opposed the German occupier’s equalisation of education and the persecution of Jews and eventually dropped out. Incidentally, he talks about the relationship between Mussert and Rauter.
Mr Zaayer had already met Mussert in the 1920s in connection with the organisation of the protests against the Belgium-Netherlands treaty of 1925 (cf. also the interview with Zaayer in: SFW work issue no. 8, p.53). After World War II, he was one of Mussert’s accusers as procurator fiscal of the Special Court in The Hague.

 

Interviewer: Paul Verhoeven

Spanish Civil War

Stichting Film en Wetenschap / Djoeke Veeninga
 
Time period: 1936-1939
Number of interviews: 3
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: no
Period of interviews: 1979

Medium: 2 sound tapes
 

These are three interviews relating to the Spanish Civil War conducted by Veeninga with the communist former Spanish fighter Van Poelgeest (born 1914), the Spanish man of letters Carrasquer (born 1915), who has lived in the Netherlands since 1953, and the anarchist Constandse (1899-1985).

Heerlen WW-II

Thermen Museum / Jos Hoogeveen
 
Time period: 1940-1944
Number of interviews: 15
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: no
Period of interviews: 1983-1984

Eveneens voor de goede orde. Heerlen in oorlogstijd, 1940-1944

Auteur: Jos Hoogeveen
Uitgever: Winants B.V., Boekhandel En Uitgeverij, 1984
ISBN: 9789070001087

 

 

The interviews were conducted for the purposes of Jos Hoogeveen’s book ‘Even for the record. Heerlen in wartime, 1940-1944

 

The interviewees are former resistance fighters, who talk about their experiences during World War II in Heerlen until the liberation of that city in 1944.

 

Interviewees:

  • A. Bemelmans
  • A. van Brink
  • J. Corrips
  • J. Crasborn
  • A. Damen
  • L. Jans
  • J. Cologne
  • J. Lemmens
  • A. Paulen
  • Mr Ramackers
  • W. van Roest
  • O. Schumacher
  • T. Spreksel
  • P. Stoks
  • Br. Winkelmolen

 

German army raid in Heerlen, 10 May 1940. After the occupation of Heerlen, several former Dutch soldiers became active in the resistance. (Rijckheyt Collection)

Unskilled labour

Stichting Film en Wetenschap / Abram de Swaan
 
Number of interviews: 6
Accessibility: restricted
Transcripts: yes
Period of interviews: 1971
Medium: 29 audiotapes
 

The interviews were made for the VARA television production Een boterham met tevredenheid (55′) by Abram de Swaan and Paul van den Bos, broadcast on 1 May 1971.

The context of the film and the making of the interviews was covered in Vrije Geluiden, among other publications. VPRO programme magazine for TV and radio, no 18, 1-8 May 1971.
The interviewees talk about their work (skilled or unskilled) and any previous occupations or work circles.

Boon is a metal worker (plate presser) at DAF; Ten Dolle is a textile worker (stretcher) at the Enka in Emmen; Hilkhuyzen is a punch typist at the computer centre of an insurance company; Mathijsen – not included in the documentary – is a metal worker at Tomado; Oussoren is a cable braider at Draka; Spoelstra is a biscuit packer at Albert Heijn. The interview with Hilkhuyzen was conducted by Langebach.

 

Interviewees:

  • M.H. Boon
  • G.J. ten Dolle
  • Mrs W. Hilkhuyzen
  • Mr Mathijsen
  • A.R. Oussoren
  • Mrs Spoelstra-Leendert

 

Interviewer(s): Bram de Swaan, Laurie Langebach

De Swaan published the interviews in abridged form in his book Een boterham
met tevredenheid. Gesprekken met arbeiders, Amsterdam:
Van Gennep, 1972.