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Catholics and cinema: film criticism and film censorship

Ernst Radius
 
Time period: 1945-1986
Number of interviews: 1 (1 person)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: none
Period of interviews: July 1986
Remarks:

Type interview: scientific

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl

Medium: 2 cassette tapes
 

Ernst Radius talks with Bob Bertina (1914-2012) about Dutch Catholics’ attitudes toward film after 1945. The relationship between Christians and film has never been unequivocal. Bertina was a film critic for the Volkskrant for many years, a member of the editorial board of several (Catholic) film magazines and involved in Katholieke Film Actie (KFA). In particular, it discusses the Catholic film censorship, organized in the Katholieke Film Centrale (KFC), in which leading film critics – besides Bertina Charles Boost and Janus van Domburg – played a role. Between 1945 and 1979, Bertina wrote about films in the Volkskrant. In his early days, film was still considered immoral by the Catholic Church. When the Volkskrant became a progressive newspaper in the late 1960s, Bertina welcomed it. He always sided with art.

 

Bertina explains the not unproblematic relationship between film criticism and film censorship. The premise endorsed by both ‘camps’, ‘work for good film’, was given different interpretations because the former reasoned primarily from an aesthetic point of view and the latter took a primarily moralistic stance. Bertina refers with approval to the brochure Film en moraal [Film and morality], which the progressive ‘filmpater’ Jac. Dirkse once wrote and in which he advocated, among other things, an independent relationship between Catholic film critics and the Catholic film censors.

 

Also see this article by Bertina’s that dives into Dutch film critique and Catholicism after the Second World War

The Dutch Reformed Church and Film

Stichting Film en Wetenschap
 
Time period: 1945-1960
Number of interviews: 1 (1 person)
Accessibility: Restricted
Transcripts: None
Period of interviews: 1994
Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Beeld & Geluid. Digitization can, however, be requested from Beeld & Geluid via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl 

Medium: 1 cassette tape
 

The interview discusses the relationship between the Dutch Reformed Church and film. Reverend Willem Overbosch was involved in the realization of the Report on the Cinema Issue, which was commissioned by the Synod of the Dutch Reformed Church in 1946 and which advocated a critical but positive attitude toward film.

 

Also discussed are film censorship and, more specifically, the activities of the Centrale Commissie voor de Filmkeuring and the Film Center Foundation. This organization was founded in 1947 (initially under the name Stichting Kerk en Film) in order to give shape to the conclusions of the aforementioned report by providing information about film in Protestant Christian circles. Finally, the Prof. Dr. G. van der Leeuw Foundation, meeting center of church and art, is discussed. Persons discussed are: L. Eker, Dr. A. Dronkers, P.J. van Mullem, Prof. Dr. G. van der Leeuw and D. van Staveren.

Wouter Lutkie, Catholicism and fascism

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU
 
Time period: 1919-1945
Number of interviews: 1 (1 person)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: complete
Period of interviews: 31 January 1966
Remarks:

Type interview: scientific

This interview can be found in DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid with the following search terms: “Stichting film en wetenschap” AND”Lutkie”. It can also be found with the term “Lutkie”

Medium: 2 audio tapes

Title: Soli Deo – Wouter Lutkie: biografie van een priester-fascist

Author: Willem Huberts

Publisher: Boom, Amsterdam 2022

ISBN: 9789024446414

Two years before his death, R.L. Schuursma and Sj. Vellenga interviewed the Catholic priest Wouter Lutkie from North Brabant. This interview discusses his views on Catholicism and fascism.

 

Wouter Lutkie was a Dutch priest who was constantly at odds with virtually the entire Dutch episcopate – yet was never excommunicated. He was an idiosyncratic, stubborn character and always went his own way. He was however not a loner. He conducted correspondence with hundreds of people, wrote many books and was active as a journalist for decades, especially for his own magazine Aristo. Lutkie was the only Dutchman to be on friendly terms with the Italian fascist leader Mussolini, with whom he was allowed seven private audiences. Lutkie had close ties to fascism, but was never charged with collaboration despite of investigations.

 

After the war, he continued his work as a priest without office and his magazine Aristo continued to exist. This had since become a literary journal. In early 1965, the magazine had to cease publication for good, due to lack of subscribers. To what extent Lutkie and his Aristo had been fascist or even national socialist remained the subject of much debate. This interview addresses this issue.

 

For more information about the interview and the interviewee, see: SFW work issue no. 8 (1995), p.31.

Socialism

Sound and vision, Hedda van Gennep
 
Time period: 1850-1918
Number of interviews: 63 (57 people)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: summaries
Period of interviews: 1976-1977
Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl 

 

DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid does contain the following item: the documentary series Voorwaarts en niet vergeten, which processed these interviews

 

These interviews were made by Hedda van Gennep in 1976 and early 1977 for the 9-part VARA television series (on 16mm film) Voorwaarts en niet vergeten, broadcast between January 11 and May 5, 1977. The series covers the history of the socialist movement in the Netherlands from 1850-1918, with the last part extending the line to 1976. It lasts a total of 5 hours and 45 min. The start of the series was accompanied in the VARAGids (Jan. 8, 1977) by an article on the background of the project, which included interviews with the project’s scientific advisor Johan Frieswijk.

 

The persons with whom the interviews were conducted range from all kinds of “nameless” fighters of the socialist labor movement from all over the country – including some of the workers from Friesland already interviewed for the film on Imke Klaver, such as the Brandsma couple and Douwe de Wit – to children of socialist leaders of the first hour such as Schaper, Vliegen, Troelstra and Domela Nieuwenhuis.

 

Discussions include: the Railway Strike of 1903; the Seamen’s Strike of 1911; the Potato Revolt of 1917; Troelstra’s revolutionary attempt in 1918; the General Diamond Workers Union (ANDB) and Henri Polak; women’s suffrage; Wibaut and social housing; the SDAP; the trade union movement, including the NVV and the NAS but also the Catholic and Christian organizations; the CPH and David Wijnkoop; the SociaalDemocratische Bond (SDB); the Maastricht pottery manufacturer Regout; the influence of the church; more generally, the living conditions of workers in the period under review.

 

The following people were interviewed:

  • C. Assink
  • dhr. Bildstra
  • Mw. W. Boonstra
  • P. Bos
  • L. Bot (2x)
  • mw. T. Bovens-Corsius (2x)
  • dhr. en mw. Brandsma
  • J. Brinkhuis
  • P. Buys
  • mw. Bijlsma
  • A. Caris
  • Cesar Domela (Nieuwenhuis)
  • ir. A. van Emmenes
  • Dhr. en mw. Faber
  • D. Groenendijk
  • mw. Halma
  • J. Hippe (2x)
  • Harm van Houten
  • Y. Joustra
  • D. Kiburg
  • mw. Y. Kootstra van der Veen
  • K. Meijnders
  • Dirk Mozes
  • Ies Mug
  • mw. B. van den Muyzenberg
  • dr. Polak
  • dhr. Prakke
  • J. Pront
  • dhr. en mw. Rietstra
  • mw. J. Roetman
  • Jan de Ronde
  • B. Sajet
  • dhr. van Sandbergen
  • mw. G. Sanders-Mantel
  • prof. Schaper
  • R. Schuur
  • J. Seedelaar
  • mw. Sieverts-Vliegen (2x)
  • dhr. Spicht
  • mw. StapelMiddelbeek
  • M. Steenman
  • mw. D. van Swieten
  • mw. Terpstra
  • W. van Tilburg
  • Jelle Troelstra
  • M. Vaartjes (2x)
  • J. Veldhuisen
  • J. Velema
  • W. Vellinga (2x)
  • A. Verhoeff
  • mw. J. Vos-Duchateau
  • mw. H. de Vries
  • Douwe de Wit
  • dhr. Zwerver
 

Socialist upbringing

Collection former Stichting Film en Wetenschap
 
Time period: 1918-1940
Number of interviews: 8 (8 people)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: none
Period of interviews: 1980
Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl 

Medium: 9 cassette tapes
 

The interviews were conducted as part of an oral history project on socialist home education at the Institute for Pedagogical and Andragogical Sciences of the University of Utrecht. All interviewees came from a “red nest” and recounted daily life in their youth, mainly about their home situation and upbringing.

 

The results of the project are laid down in Socialistische thuisopvoeding in Nederland in de jaren 1918-1940. Een projekt orale geschiedenis by José van Dijk, Gerda Houtman, Jacqueline van Lemmen, Utrecht, 1980.

 

Interviewees:

Mrs. Bleeker
Mr. Dekker
Mrs. Lantinga
Mr. Moes
Ms. Mulders-Venminh
Mrs Riethof
Mrs Wigbold-van Berkel
Ger Zuidhoek

World federalism

Stichting Film en Wetenschap
 
Number of interviews: 17 (17 personen)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: none
Period of interviews: 1992-1995
Remarks:

Type interview: scientific

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl 

Medium: 27 cassette tapes
 

Peter Davidse, development economist and world federalist, talks to Dutch, American (Gaff, Garves, Millard, Logue and Nelson) and English (Waterlow) representatives of the World Federalist Movement (WFB) about this movement in general and the local sections in particular. Discussed are the personal backgrounds of the distinguished individuals, their introduction to World Federalism and their activities within it.

 

The WFB came into existence shortly after the war in 1946 and seeks the establishment of a federal world government based on an international rule of law, equipped with powers to
maintenance of international peace and security. At the level of nation-states there should be general disarmament, except for a minimal power to maintain domestic order. World federalists have always seen the United Nations as an instrument for their efforts.

 

Another interesting collection on world federalism can be found on the Sound and Vision website. Here a talk program can be seen at the end of the tenth congress World Federalism at the Kurhaus hotel in Scheveningen. in a discussion panel led by Prof. Dr. J.L. van Holk discussed peace issues, UN police force (UN troops), development aid and nuclear weapons.

Speaking Humanism

 

 

UVH.NL/DIGITAAL-HUMANISTISCH-ERFGOED

 

Number of interviews: 24

 

sprekend-humanisme

Speaking Humanism

 

The latest interview project of the Humanistisch Historisch Centrum (HHC), called ‘Sprekend Humanisme,’ dates from 2018-2019.

The interviews are with people who became members of the Humanistisch Verbond in the period 1946-1955. Often, they also became members of a local branch, called a ‘community’ in the early years.

In 2021 no thorough research has been done on the activities within the communities of the HV, let alone anything substantial published about them.

By means of these interviews, the Digital Humanistic Heritage attempts to obtain information about the backgrounds of the members of the local communities and the activities that were developed. That is why we opted for so-called life-course interviews in which the life phases of the person are discussed; youth and family, school and education, career and humanism.

Narrated Past

 

 

UVH.NL/DIGITAAL-HUMANISTISCH-ERFGOED

 

Number of interviews: 60

 

VERTELD-VERLEDEN

Narrated past

 

From the mid-1990s to about the year 2000, the Humanist Historical Centre interviewed a number of well-known and less well-known humanists about their lives and their role in the humanist movement from 1945 onwards. People from the freethinking association De Vrije Gedachte (formerly De Dageraad) and the ‘Jongeren Vredes Actie’ (Young Peace Action) are also interviewed. They are important precursors of the modern post-war humanist movement.

Interview collections Humanistic Heritage

Digitaal Humanistisch Erfgoed
 
Number of interviews: 95

 

UVH.NL/DIGITAAL-HUMANISTISCH-ERFGOED

 

Number of interviews: 60

 

VERTELD-VERLEDEN

Verteld verleden

 

From the mid-1990s to about the year 2000, the Humanist Historical Centre interviewed a number of well-known and less well-known humanists about their lives and their role in the humanist movement from 1945 onwards. People from the freethinking association De Vrije Gedachte (formerly De Dageraad) and the ‘Jongeren Vredes Actie’ (Young Peace Action) are also interviewed. They are important precursors of the modern post-war humanist movement.

 

UVH.NL/DIGITAAL-HUMANISTISCH-ERFGOED

 

Number of interviews: 24

 

sprekend-humanisme

Sprekend Humanisme

 

The latest interview project of the Humanistisch Historisch Centrum (HHC), called ‘Sprekend Humanisme,’ dates from 2018-2019.

The interviews are with people who became members of the Humanistisch Verbond in the period 1946-1955. Often they also became members of a local branch, called a ‘community’ in the early years.

In 2021 no thorough research has been done on the activities within the communities of the HV, let alone anything substantial published about them.

By means of these interviews, the Digital Humanistic Heritage attempts to obtain information about the backgrounds of the members of the local communities and the activities that were developed. That is why we opted for so-called life-course interviews in which the life phases of the person are discussed; youth and family, school and education, career and humanism.

Humanistisch geestelijke verzorging bij Defensie

 

In 2012-2014, as part of a publication, the HHC interviewed a number of humanist spiritual counsellors about their lives and work in the Dutch armed forces. The interviews were with retired counsellors and counsellors in active service. They give a good insight into the work of these people before, during and after military missions over the years. They also give an insight into the problems they have to deal with.

 

A number of interviews were transcribed by employees of the Veterans’ Institute. The rest were transcribed by employees of the HHC. This means the form of the transcription may differ. The Veterans Institute has transcribed the interviews roughly, by time and subject. The HHC transcribed the interviews verbatim.