Black under Orange

Stichting Nusantara Amsterdam
Time period: 1980-2017
Number of interviews: 17
Accessibility: restricted public
Transcripts: no
Period of interviews: 2016 - 2017

If interested, please contact Stichting Nusantara Amsterdam via:


The Nusantara Amsterdam Foundation conducted 17 interviews with young people whose family histories lie in former Dutch colonies as part of the Black under Orange project. After 13 interviews were conducted, a meeting was organised in which their stories were shared. Four more young people were then interviewed. A number of young people then embraced this initiative. Under the name Black x Orange, they organise various activities in which they link the colonial past to contemporary social themes such as remembrance, freedom and racism.


The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1980 – 2017.
They mainly talk about the Netherlands. Themes include colonial history and influence
of family history on one’s own life.


Website Nusantara Amsterdam:

Storytelling project Antara Nusa

Aankomst Indonesische immigranten op Centraal Station, Amsterdam (foto: R.W. Wettstein)
Stichting Nusantara Amsterdam
Time period: 1930-2017
Number of interviews: 11
Accessibility: restricted public
Period of interviews: 2016-2017

If interested, please contact Stichting Nusantara Amsterdam via:


When Nusantara Amsterdam Foundation was established in 2006, it was decided to work with Zieraad Foundation to record the life stories of visitors to the session afternoons organised by Nusantara Amsterdam Foundation. Within this storytelling project, 11 interviews were conducted. Video and audio recordings of the interviews were made by Ben and Ineke Vink. 10 of the interviews formed the basis for the book Antara Nusa, life stories of elderly people from the East Indies/Indonesia (2018) compiled by Yvette Kopijn (Zieraad foundation) with the cooperation of Hanoch Nahumury, secretary of Nusantara Amsterdam Foundation and Armando Ello, photographer. During the writing process, several follow-up interview sessions were held of which no recordings are available.

The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1930 – 2017. They mainly discuss Indonesia, Java, Sumatra, Ambon and New Guinea and the Netherlands.
Themes include colonisation, struggle for independence, Japanese occupation, World War II, Indonesian revolution, migration, RMS, upbringing, childhood, identity, class society, loss, displacement, uprooting, resilience, courage, racism.


Relevant links: Website Nusantara Amsterdam:
Facebook page Zieraad Foundation:

Antara Nusa. Levensverhalen van ouderen uit Indië/Indonesië.

Kopijn, Y.

LM Publishers, 2018

Over the years, a lot has been written about settling and processing the end of the Dutch East Indies. The voice of the totoks (white Dutchmen) has been strikingly dominant in this. This book wants to offer the reader an alternative, multi-voiced perspective. It features elderly people of Indonesian, Moluccan, Timorese, Indonesian-Chinese and Surinamese descent.

Stayed in the Netherlands

Collectie Museum Maluku (coll. J de Lima, fotograaf niet bekend)
Moluks Historisch Museum (het huidige Museum Maluku)
Time period: 1930-2006
Number of interviews: 190
Accessibility: restricted public
Transcripts: Extensive descriptions of AVD0016 to AVD0187 and transcriptions of AVD0188 to AVD0190 available
Period of interviews: 2001-2006

Archive and inventory no: AVD0016 to AVD00206

Enter in search field Object nummer: AVD


The interviews have not all been unlocked yet. The interviews can be listened to by appointment at Museum Maluku, located in Museum Sophiahof. The AVD numbers can be listened to digitally. (Requests) can be sent to:

Medium: Minidiscs, grotendeels omgezet naar digitale audiobestanden (WAV

On the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Moluccans’ residence in the Netherlands in 2001, then-minister of Major Cities Policy and Integration, Roger van Boxtel commissioned a study on Moluccans in the Netherlands, the study Stayed in the Netherlands. 173 interviews were conducted with Moluccans in the Netherlands. In addition, 17 more interviews were conducted in two subprojects, namely in a sub-study on the organisation Interkerkelijk Contact Comité Ambon-Nederland (ICCAN) in 2004 and in a study on the Genapium residential resort and the Moluccan neighbourhood in Gennep in 2004 – 2005.


The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1930 – 2006.
They mainly discuss the Netherlands and Indonesia, the Moluccas and New Guinea.
Themes include churches, church organisations, self-care, Bouwburo Molukse kerkgebouwen, GIM, fights, housing, neighbourhoods, RMS ideal, kumpulans, repatriation, political organisations, polit, RMS talks, RMS struggle, unity state, states politics, students, KNVB, football, BP, ICCAN, foundations, organisations, Köbben Commission, Tjandu, Muhabbat, mission, contract pensions, Islam, identity, religion, religion, education, rituals, mosques, civil war, neighbourhood life, CAZ, self care, minorities, government policy, housing, IWM, labour, minorities note, Verwey-Jonker committee, residential settlements, training, education, Action Wassenaar, KPK, walking marches, cultural differences, marriages, mixed, hostage-taking, weapons, welfare, relief, racism, radicalisation, marechaussee, POW, KNIL, Police Actions, crossing, RMS commemorations, RST, KST, Westerling coup, aircraft, training, soldier life, disbandment of KNIL,  SPMT, family life, political organisations, violence, evictions, police action, conspiracies, occupations,  mayors, women’s organisations, Korans, philosophical education, integration, repatriation, orientation trips, Joint Committee, travel organisations, RMS organisations, Mission Military, FAA, Joint Committee, pensions, Indo-Europeans, ICCAN, foundations, CAZ, Facilities Act, Moluccans Note, Through the Centuries Allegiance Foundation (DDET).

Smeets, H., & Steijlen, F. (2006).

In Nederland gebleven.
De geschiedenis van Molukkers 1951 – 2006.

Uitgeverij Bert Bakker en Moluks Historisch Museum.

Study – on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of their stay in the Netherlands in 2001 – of the history of the 12,500 Moluccans, mainly soldiers of the Royal Dutch East Indies Army and their families, who arrived in the Netherlands in 1951.

Living Memories/Menghayati Kenangan

Stichting Levende Herinneringen
Time period: 1930-2007
Number of interviews: 160
Accessibility: Restricted public
Transcripts: no
Period of interviews: 2012-2016

For now, the collection is managed by media company Noterik. The collection is likely to be transferred to DANS.


If interested, please contact media company Noterik.


The Living Memories/Menghayati Kenangan Foundation recorded life stories as part of Het Gebaar (Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, 2000). The aim that this would ensure that the colonial part of history would not be forgotten. The life stories of the interviewees were largely recorded chronologically.

The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1930 – 2007.
They mainly discuss the Netherlands and Indonesia. Themes include Japanese occupation, ‘bersiap’, Indonesian revolution, repatriation wave 1962, experiences in the Netherlands, resistance.

Interview project late 1980s early 1990s

Stichting Moluks Museum
Time period: 1951-1976
Number of interviews: 69
Accessibility: restricted public
Period of interviews: 1988-1991

Enter the following keywords:

Zoek in: Museumcollectie – Audiovisueel archief

Trefwoord: interviews

Jaar vanaf: 1988

tot: 1991


The interviews can be listened to by appointment at Museum
Maluku, enquiries can be sent to:


The aim of the interview project was to capture life stories of the first generation. They were asked about their experiences in the first 20 years in the Netherlands.


The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1930 – 1991 with an emphasis on 1951 – 1976. They mainly discuss the Netherlands, Indonesia, the Moluccas.
Themes include government policy, integration, resistance, domestic governance, RMS government.


Sometimes there are several inventory numbers per person.

Postwar Moluccan period Schattenberg 1951 – 1971

Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork
Time period: 1930-present
Number of interviews: 50
Accessibility: Limited public - on-site listening
Transcripts: Partly
Period of interviews: 2000-present

The use of the interviews for research and educational purposes requires prior permission from the Camp Westerbork Memorial Center. Transcripts can be sent to you. The interviews can only be listened to on location.

The main questions for the interviews with former Moluccan residents are: What was daily life like before World War II? How did you experience the migration? How did you experience your time in residential Schattenberg. What was daily life like? How did you experience moving to the neighborhoods? Some of the interviews include ego documents and photographs.


The interviews focus on events and experiences in the 1930s – present.
They mainly discuss Indonesia and the Netherlands. Themes include World War II, Indonesian revolution, migration, reception in the Netherlands, daily life in Schattenberg residential area, upbringing, Moluccan neighborhoods, education, food, religion, Dutch culture.

Abuys, G., Martín, J., & Mulder, D. (2011). Molukkers in kamp Westerbork:
het verhaal van woonoord Schattenberg 1951 – 1971. Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork

Moluccans in Camp Westerbork is a beautiful reading and viewing book with over 300 photographs, documents and drawings. It provides a fascinating picture of a Moluccan world on the Drenthe heath. Numerous former residents, both Moluccans and resident staff, speak out and recount daily life in the camp. Bystanders also talk about their contacts with another culture. For most of those involved, Schattenberg residential camp was an unforgettable experience, which they remember with warmth and often nostalgia. On March 22, 1951, the first Moluccan families arrived at the former Westerbork transit camp. These former KNIL soldiers and their families had come to the Netherlands from the former Dutch East Indies by order of the Dutch government. The name camp Westerbork was changed to Schattenberg residential facility. Over the years, more than 3,000 Moluccans would come to live there. There was a school, a hospital, a theater, a cinema and a bathhouse. Gradually, many contacts with the Dutch population developed. For example, traders offered their merchandise or opened a store in Schattenberg after the introduction of self-care. The stay in the residential resort was to be temporary. But the promised return to their homeland turned out to be an illusion, and so the Moluccan history of habitation became the longest in the camp. The last Moluccan families did not leave until 1971.

Postwar Dutch Indies period Schattenberg 1950 – 1951

Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork
Time period: 1931-present
Number of interviews: 25
Accessibility: Open to the public in 2025
Transcripts: yes
Period of interviews: 1995-present
Medium: Digital audio files, from 2010 video files

Jarenlang lag de nadruk in Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork op de periode 1939 – 1934 en de overgang naar het kamp als interneringskamp.
Eind jaren 1990 vindt er een kentering plaats. Het uitgangspunt wordt de gehele geschiedenis van de plek. Er komt onder andere meer aandacht voor de Indische periode, de jaren 1950 – 1951, waarin het kamp als opvangcentrum of repatriëringskamp voor Indische Nederlanders fungeerden die net waren aangekomen in Nederland. In maart 1951 werd De Schattenberg ontruimd. De bewoners verhuisden naar hotels en pensions.


De interviews gaan in op gebeurtenissen en ervaringen in de jaren 1930 – heden. Er wordt voornamelijk over Indonesië en Nederland gesproken. Thema’s zijn o.a. Tweede Wereldoorlog, dagelijks leven, interneringskamp, opvoeding, bevrijding, Indonesische revolutie, migratie, ontvangst in Nederland, relatie met Indonesië.

Abuys, G., Oomen, M., & Mulder, D. (Eds.). (2001). Welkom in Holland!
Indische Nederlanders in kamp Westerbork, 1950-1951: Vol. 8 van Westerbork cahiers. Herinneringscentrum Kamp Westerbork.

Documentatie over het leven van en interviews met in 1950 naar Nederland gerepatrieerde Indische Nederlanders in het opvangkamp ‘De Schattenberg’, het voormalige doorgangskamp ‘Westerbork’.


Een vergeten periode in de geschiedenis van kamp Westerbork en een onderbelichte tijd uit het verleden van ons land is die van de gerepatrieerde Indische Nederlanders. Vanaf 1950 kwamen zij naar Nederland, eerst gehuisvest in contractpensions en  opvangkampen. Een van deze kampen was het voormalig Judendurchgangslager Westerbork dat toen de naam ‘De Schattenberg’ kreeg.
In dit achtste Westerbork Cahier wordt een beeld gegeven van de Indische wereld, de overtocht en de opvang van gerepatrieerden in Nederland. Tal van oud-bewoners van De Schattenberg komen aan het woord en vertellen over het leven in het kamp maar ook van hun latere geschiedenis. Het is een verhaal ‘van sambal goreng tot frikandel, van zonnesteek tot kippevel’.”

“Our book”

Dane Beerling, 12 jaar, tussen zijn vader en moeder in.
Indisch Herinneringscentrum (IHC)
Time period: 1930-1990
Number of interviews: 64
Accessibility: The collection is not yet accessible. After disclosure, the collection will become public
Transcripts: yes
Period of interviews: 1980s
Medium: cassette tapes

The material is a donation from E.H. (Rita) Vreugdenburg. It concerns interview material by artist Dane Beerling and Indo working group Westcoast.

Objective: to record the history of the Indian Buiten- en binnenkamp children from the pre-war period to the present for the project Ons boek.

The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1930 – 1990.
Mainly Indonesia and the Netherlands are discussed. Themes include World War II, Indonesian revolution, migration, Japanese internment camps, outdoor camp children, Indo working group Westcoast.

Kenang Kenangan: Moluccans in Zwolle

Collectie Overijssel, 1214 Collectie bewegend beeld 1107
Time period: 1940-2011
Number of interviews: 5
Transcripts: Not available
Period of interviews: 2012
Medium: Dvd en digitaal audiobestand (MPG)

The interviews were conducted in 2012 during the opening of the photo exhibition Moluccans in the Netherlands where the book Kenang Kenangang, Herinneringen, Molukkers in Zwolle was also presented. The book contains personal memories of life in the Dutch East Indies/Indonesia, the migration to the Netherlands in 1951 and the stay in the residential areas in Laarbrug and Eerde and the settlement in the Holtenbroek neighborhood in Zwolle.

These interviews are not included at Collection Overijssel. The interviews conducted during the book presentation feature third generation Moluccans. Questions include: Where did you grow up? How are your ties with (family on) the Moluccas? How are you approached as a Moluccan by non-Moluccans?
Which typical Moluccan customs and habits play a role in your life?

Kenang Kenangan

Publication: Aarts, H., Scholten-Rada, J., & Wolthof, P. (2012).



The Dutch government did not fulfill the promise made to return to the Moluccas and so the temporary stay became permanent. In the 1960s a group of Moluccans settled in Zwolle and the Moluccan neighborhood in Holtenbroek came into being. The booklet tells how the Moluccans fared in Zwolle and how a third generation of Moluccans is now growing up in the city. For many people, the story of the Moluccans is unknown. With the booklet and the exhibition, the HCO wants to draw attention to the special history of this population group in Zwolle.

Ta Cuba mi ke bai

Proj. Cubag. AAINA (Archaeological- Anthropological Institute Netherlands Antilles) by Rose Mary Allen
Time period: 1917-1990
Number of interviews: unknown
Accessibility: unknown

Kept at the Central Historical Archive since 1998


Language: Papiamentu 



Oral history of Curaçao migrants who left for Cuba in the early 20th century to work in Cuban sugarcane fields.


“Ta Cuba mi ke bai” is the result of a study of the emigration of children from Curaçao to Cuba. This emigration peaked at the end of 1917 until 1921. Many Curaçao workers moved to Cuba to work in the sugar cane fields. There they met workers from other Caribbean islands, including Haiti, Jamaica, Barbados and also from Aruba, Bonaire and the islands above.

In a few years, some 2,300 Curaçaoans emigrated to Cuba. Rose Mary Allen visited old Curaçaoans who went to Cuba during that time and then returned to Curaçao. They were old, but could tell her a lot about Cuba and also about the reasons why they had gone to Cuba. And these were almost always economic reasons. There are still Curacaoans living in Cuba who went there at the time and stayed. That group intrigued Rose Mary Allen and she felt that her research would not be complete if she had not also visited these people in Cuba.


To get as complete a picture as possible of emigration to Cuba, the research was expanded by comparing testimonies with information from documents, such as official letters and newspapers.