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Drug Use

Stichting Film en Wetenschap / René Swetter
 
Number of interviews: 6
Accessibility: Restricted
Transcripts: Yes
Period of interviews: 1971
Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl

Medium: 7 Cassette tapes

 

 

 

The interviews were conducted on behalf of and incorporated into the film Drugs, stuff for thought (René Swetter, SFW 1972). Five interviews concern users of soft drugs and (former) addicts of hard drugs. The experiences of the individuals range from twice ever smoking a stickie to twelve years of opium addiction. One interview concerns the wife of a (former) opium addict.

 

Drugs, stuff for thought was made on the initiative of Amsterdam psychiatrist Peter Geerlings. Faced with a great demand for information on drugs, Geerlings felt the need to add a film to the drug information package circulating in our country (such as a program by the Kritische Filmers from Breda, broadcasts by various broadcasters and school television and a series of publications). Geerlings particularly encountered a lack of information among people who deal with young people on a daily basis at schools, social academies, and training and youth centers. The film: Drugs, stuff for thought, is primarily intended for them. However, the makers of the film will also explore whether the viewing audience can be extended to young people themselves-“The problem with that, however,” says director René Swetter, “is that there are quite a few people who fear that young people will interpret this information about drugs as advertising.” A fear that seems unfounded. When you watch and listen to the seven young people who talk about their experience with drugs in the film You don’t undergo a reaction of, hey, I need to so badly too. There is only one boy in the entire film (Jaap, 32, publisher and unmarried says the commentary) who is able to integrate smoking hashish well into his function in social life. The other interviewees smoke. as a reaction to their environment and none of them seem really happy about it. The film therefore creates a somewhat distorted picture of drug use in the Netherlands. After all, Leuw has once again confirmed this with his research among schoolchildren: most users stick to some Incidental experimentation with cannabis.

 

The discussion film (short version) which focuses on breaking taboos around drug use can be found here: link naar archief

Jacques Presser

Collectie voormalig Stichting Film en Wetenschap
 
Time period: 1899-1970
Number of interviews: 126
Accessibility: Restricted
Transcripts: Summary
Period of interviews: 1984 - 1987
Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl

 

The following can be found in DAAN, the digital archive of Sound & Vision: Een Uur Ischa 01-11-1988 VPRO. An interview with Nanda van der Zee, who conducted these interviews.

Medium: 148 cassettebanden

The interviews were conducted for Van der Zee’s biography of Presser (1899-1970):
Jacques Presser: The Right of Doubt. A biography, Amsterdam: Balans, 1988.

 

Those interviewed (some of them in Jerusalem) are relatives, former pupils, former students, colleagues and other relations of the historian and writer Jacques Presser, who became known for his book Ondergang: de ververvolging en verdelging van het Nederlandse Jodendom 1940-1945 (The Hague: Staatsuitgeverij, 1965). In 1950, the Dutch state commissioned Presser to conduct a study of the fate of the Jews during World War II. For this, Presser spent fifteen years in the NIOD archives. The published book subsequently became a bestseller. Presser is also the creator of the term ego document and is considered one of the great Dutch historians of the modern era.

 

The interviewees talk about Presser’s childhood, background and family ties; student days; teaching at the Vossius Gymnasium and the Jewish Lyceum in Amsterdam; his marriage to Dé Appel; the war years, including the suicide attempt in May 1940, Dé’s deportation and going into hiding; his Jewish identity; second marriage to Bep Hartog; political views; the appointment issue surrounding his appointment as professor of New History at the Political Social Faculty at the University of Amsterdam, founded in 1947; his publications, including his well-known, two-volume Ondergang. The Persecution and Extermination of Dutch Jewry, 1940-1945.

 

Interviewees:

Lie Alma, R. van Amerongen, Josje Appel, Jaap Arnon (alias Jaap van Amerongen), J.Z. Baruch, H. Baudet, Judith Belinfante, dr. Sig. Berreclouw, J.A.H. van Beusekom, E. Biegel-Roozendaal, P.B.M. Blaas, Salvador Bloemgarten, dr. H. Boaz, Els Bonger, prof. J.C. Boogman, Sal Breemer, Philo Bregstein, L. Brester-Flothuis, prof. dr. I.J. Brugmans, dr. W.J. Bruijn, A. Bueno de Mesquita, dr. Fenna van den Burg, dr. Frans Bijlsma, M.G. Bijlsma-Burgers, C.W. Damme[r]-Hamerpracht, Lea Dasberg, Lex van Delden, prof. dr. Sem Dresden, prof. dr. H.W. von der Dunk, Jel van Eck, H.J. van Eck, Marius Flothuis, Ruth Foppema-Wolf, dr. W.J. Formsma, Barend Frankfort, J.G. Frankfort, Chellie Frankfort-Presser, Tine Gewin-Bijlsma, J.J. Giele, Eva M. Gomperts-van Schaik, Annemarie Goudriaan-de Ru, E.G. Groeneveld, Maria de Groot, Jo de Haas, prof. dr. G.W. Harmsen, prof. dr. D. Harting, A.J. Hensbroek-Reiding, prof. dr. W.F. Heinemeyer, Salvador Hartog, mr. Abel J. Herzberg, A.E. Heuwekemeyer-de Lange, dr. F.A. Hoogendijk, H.J. Hucride, Ellie Jaffé-Freem, prof. dr. H.P.H. Jansen, Auke de Jong, Frits de Jong, Beb de Jong-Bijlsma, J.P. Klautz, K.P. Klimp, Wim Klinkenberg, A.P.E. Korver, prof. dr. E.H. Kossman, dr. J.A. Kossman-Putto, mw. A.L. Kropveld, prof. ir. D.G.H. Latzko, prof. dr. D.J. de Lévita, Géke Linker, prof. dr. Ies Lipschitz, C.E. (Connie) van der Maesen, Els Matthijsen-Plomp, prof. dr. A.F. Mellink, H.H. Mendel, Frans Meyers, S.J. Meyers-Appel, Hanny Michaelis, J. Michman [J. Melkman], prof. dr. C.W. Mönnich, Henk van Nieuwenhuyzen, Miriam Noordenbos, M.B. Nordheim-van Amerongen, dr. F.G.J. Offerijns, dr. C. Offringa, P.A.L. Oppenheimer, C.M. Plomp, Marianne Plomp, prof. dr. J.M. Pluvier, Jacob Polak, J.B.W. Polak, Annie van Raalte-Nunes Nabarro, prof. dr. Karel van het Reve, dr. R.F. Roegholt, J.B. Romein, J.E. Romein, Renate Rubinstein, dr. A.S. Rijxman, C. Rijxman-van der Horst, prof. dr. B.W. Schaper, mr. J. van Schaik, A.M. van Schaik-Ero, dr. P. Schneiders, prof. dr. I. Schöffer, P. Schraa, J. Schröder, G.J. van Setten, H.J. Smit, Pauline Sprengers, W. Sterzenberg, A. Sterzenberg-David, C.J.F. Stuhldreher, G.J. van Suchtelen, Jaap Talsma, Eva Tas, H.G. (Isa) Teske-Baswitz, I.H. (Iet) Verdoorn-Rabbie, prof. dr. A.A. Verrijn-Stuart, B.F. Vos, Theun de Vries, dr. H. Wansink, prof. dr. W.F. Wertheim, dr. E.J. Willems, J. van Witsen, F. Weinreb, W. van Zeytveld, M.N. Zijlstra-Buis.

 

Interviewer: Nanda van der Zee

 

For further information about Jacques Presser, see also: Het leven en werk van Jacques Presser met interviews met Jacques Presser zelf.

 

Re-education of juvenile political offenders in children’s homes 1944-1951

Stichting Film en Wetenschap | Project Cogis
 
Time period: 1944-1951
Number of interviews: 10
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: summary
Period of interviews: 2009
Remarks:

Can be found in DANS

GETUIGENVERHALEN.NL

Audio can be listened to via:

 

 

After the war, some 20,000 children of political offenders, mostly NSB members, ended up in children’s homes. Their parents could no longer care for them because they had been interned under the special postwar justice system. Among the children were also Youthful Political Delinquents (JPDs). In this interview project, former JPDs look back on their time in the children’s homes.

 

A JPD member could be a young person who himself had been active in the NSB youth movement, the Hitlerjugend or who had been deployed in Germany or on the Eastern Front. They could also be children as young as 13 whose parents belonged to the “more serious cases” of collaboration. For example, their parents had played an active role in the NSB or a German organization, had been active in Youth Storm or Hitlerjugend, or had been deployed in Germany or on the Eastern Front.

 

Social re-education after the war took place in special homes or camps run by Bureau Bijzondere Jeugdzorg. This agency was charged with the care and custody of children whose parents had been interned. JPD members were also entrusted to their care. In the eyes of the caregivers, this group in particular constituted a point of concern. It was felt that the elderly among them might be politically infected and could grow up to become “extremist discontented and disillusioned. Re-education into full-fledged Dutchmen was deemed necessary; only by teaching the JPD member to understand what democracy and patriotism meant could these children once again become full members of the community.

 

The phenomenon of political re-education was part of dealing with the “wrong elements” in postwar society. It was an outgrowth of the then dominant right-wrong thinking. The objective of this interview project is to investigate whether, in the experience of those involved, re-education occurred during their stay in the children’s homes, and if so, in what form and with what consequences.

 

Johannes Steggerda en Wiero Beek, professors and vocation

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU
 
Time period: 1947-1969
Number of interviews: 2 (2 people)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: none
Period of interviews: 7 May en 18 June 1969
Remarks:

Type interview: journalism

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl

 

In DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid the following item can be found: Wat is mijn kennis waard? (1969) by Warner Borregaard, the interviews were used for this film.

Medium: audio tapes
 

R.L. Schuursma interviewed two professors in 1969 about their choice of study, career and natural sciences.

The following were interviewed:

  • Prof. dr. ir. Johannes Joseph (Jan) Steggerda (1929-2021), between 1962 and 1994 professor of general and inorganic chemistry at Radboud University Nijmegen. Jan Steggerda was born on January 29, 1929 in The Hague, where he attended the HBS-B of St. Janscollege. After graduating from HBS, he went to study chemistry at the Technical College in Delft in 1947. He obtained his diploma as a chemical engineer in early 1953 and then started working under the leadership of Prof. J.H. de Boer for his PhD research. He received his doctorate on December 7, 1955 with honors for the thesis ‘The formation of active aluminum oxide’.
  • Prof. dr. ir. Wiero Jan Beek (1932-2016), between 1963 and 1970 professor of physical technology at Delft University of Technology. In 1950 he went to the Technical College (now the Technical University) in Delft. Here he studied physical technology under rof. Hans Kramers. In 1962, Beek received his doctorate cum laude for his thesis ‘Mass transfer through moving interfaces’. It is the only cum laude ever presented by Kramers.

 

For more information on the interviews and the interviewed, see: SFW-werkuitgave no. 8 (1995), p. 3, 41.

Karel Nort and Radio Herrijzend Nederland

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU
 
Time period: 1938-1946
Number of interviews: 1 (1 person)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: summary
Period of interviews: 5 June 1965
Remarks:

Type interview: scientific

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Beeld & Geluid. Digitization can, however, be requested from Beeld & Geluid via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl

 

In DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid the following items can be found: various items of Radio Herrijzend Nederland

As well as a documentary on this topic under the title “Herrijzend Nederland” 18-09-1969 TROS

Medium: 2 audio tapes
 

R.L. Schuursma interviewed Karel Nort (1913-1981), who as chief broadcaster reported the news of the German Capitulation via Radio Herrijzend Nederland on May 4, 1945. The interview covered Nort’s role in the resistance, his work at the AVRO and his role as chief announcer at Radio Herrijzend Nederland.

 

Nort joined the AVRO in 1938 as a sports reporter. After the disappearance of many radio stations, he worked for the nazified (Gleichschaltung) Nederlandsche Omroep until early 1943. When this work became too much for him, he left for Maastricht, where he went to work in the station restaurant. There he became involved in the resistance and was involved in arms smuggling. Then, after the liberation of Eindhoven in 1944, he crossed over at Biesbosch and became a contributor to Radio Herrijzend Nederland. With a makeshift reporter’s truck, he toured the liberated part of the Netherlands. Nort gives an account of this occupation here.

 

When on Saturday, May 5, 1945, the surrender of the Germans became known throughout the Netherlands, the employees of Radio Herrijzend Nederland were still wondering what would happen to the station after liberation. In the first place, the head of the Military Authority decided that Radio Herrijzend Nederland would be taken off the air immediately after liberation. This would eventually happen only in 1946.

 

For more information about the interview and the interviewee, see: SFW work issue no. 8 (1995), p.34

 

 

 

 

The spy organization “the Swiss way”

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU
 
Time period: 1942-1945
Number of interviews: 2 (1 person)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: partial
Period of interviews: 12 and 26 February 1969
Remarks:

Type interview: scientific

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Beeld & Geluid. Digitization can, however, be requested from Beeld & Geluid via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl

Medium: 4 audio tapes

Title: Agent van de Zwitserse weg: het levensverhaal van Jan van Borssum Buisman

Author: Marc Couwenberg
Publisher: Walburg Pers, Zutphen, 2000

ISBN: 9789057301254

The seventy-year-old Gerard Slotemaker de Bruine spoke with interviewers Th. Minderaa, J. Rijken, R.L. Schuursma and Sj. Vellenga about his resistance work during World War II.

 

Slotemaker de Bruine was the son of CHU minister Jan Rudolph Slotemaker de Bruine and Cornelia de Jong. He was very active in the resistance, especially within the spy group “the Swiss Road. The Swiss Road was a common smuggling route during World War II from 1942 to June 1944, part of the Dutch-Paris underground network. Prime Minister Gerbrandy urged Reverend Visser ‘t Hooft to set up an intelligence service to enable contact between occupied Holland and the government in London. Visser ‘t Hooft met Hebe Charlotte Kohlbrugge just at that time, and so the new route was established. The route went via trustworthy persons and addresses from Holland, including Slotemaker de Bruine, to Geneva. Often couriers brought messages to Switzerland via this route that were destined for the government in London. These messages were microfilmed in the Netherlands and often hidden in clothing.

 

After the war, Slotemaker de Bruine became the director of the scientific bureau of the PvdA. Later he broke away from the PvdA because of the Indonesian issue. Throughout his life he maintained close ties with leading theologians and held many societally relevant functions. Between 1963 and 1967, De Bruine served in the House of Representatives on behalf of the Pacifist Socialist Party.

Jan Teunissen, the Dutch film industry and Nazism

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU
 
Time period: 1939-1945
Number of interviews: 3 (1 person)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: summary; complete of one interview
Period of interviews: 13 and 27 November 1964 and 8 January 1965
Remarks:

Type interview: scientific

These interviews can be found in DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid: Drie interviews met G.J. Teunissen (Leider Filmgilde 1941-1945) 11-11-1964

Medium: 4 audio tapes
 

Historian R.L. Schuursma interviewed filmmaker Gerardus Johannes (Jan) Teunissen (1898-1975) in 1964 and 1965. Teunissen was a National Socialist filmmaker in the Netherlands. In 1933 he made his first feature film, Willem van Oranje. This was the Netherlands’ first sound film. The interviews therefore provide information about Dutch film history and the role of National Socialism and collaboration during World War II.

 

On August 27, 1940, Teunissen joined Anton Mussert’s National Socialist Movement (NSB). Soon he became head of the NSB’s Film Service. His star rose quickly and it was not long before he was the most powerful man in the Dutch film world during World War II. Between 1941 and 1945 he was leader of the Film Gilde, a part of the Nederlandsche Kultuurkamer. This was a German institution to which all artists, architects, writers, etc. had to be affiliated in order to work. As chairman of the Rijksfilmkeuring, Teunissen was the personification of collaboration within the Dutch film industry.

 

After the Allied victory, Teunissen was imprisoned from November 5, 1945 to May 10, 1948. He was subsequently banned from working in the Dutch film industry for ten years.

 

An article about Teunissen and the first Dutch sound film

Ernst Voorhoeve, art, propaganda, Verdinaso and the NSB

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU
 
Time period: 1931-1943
Number of interviews: 1 (1 person)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: complete
Period of interviews: 25 April 1966
Remarks:

Type interview: scientific

The interview can be found in DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid with the search terms “Ernst Voorhoeve”

E. (Ernst) Voorhoeve (1900-1966) over Verdinaso en NSB 25-04-1966

Medium: 2 audio tapes
 

Shortly before his death, Ernst Voorhoeve (1900-1966) spoke with interviewers R.L. Schuursma and SJ. Vellenga. He was a Dutch sculptor and painter. During World War II he was, among other things, propaganda director of the National Socialist Movement (NSB) and the Department of Public Information and the Arts. In this 2.5 hour interview, Voorhoeve speaks about National Socialism and the Confederation of Dietsche Nationaal Solidaristen (Verdinaso).

 

In the early 1920s, Voorhoeve converted to Catholicism. He initially made paintings, drawings, woodcuts and book illustrations, but developed into a sculptor after his conversion. He made (religious) sculptures and crucifixes in wood and bronze, which have a primitive character.

 

In 1932 Voorhoeve joined Verdinaso out of interest. After attending a speech given by Joris van Severen in 1934, he became active within the movement as a national organization leader. In 1938 the Dutch branch became independent and came under his leadership, but two years later Verdinaso-Netherlands merged into the National Socialist Movement (NSB) under pressure from the occupying forces. Voorhoeve became propaganda director of the NSB and, in 1942, of the National Socialist Department of Public Information and the Arts (DVK). Although he even fought on the Eastern Front for some time, Voorhoeve was not in favor of annexation by the Germans. He lost their approval and had to resign as propaganda leader of the NSB and the DPRK in 1943.

The Special Court in Arnhem sentenced Voorhoeve to 11 years in prison in March 1949.

 

For more information about the interview and the interviewee, see: SFW work issue no. 8 (1995), p.49.

F.W. Wessels, whistleblower of the NSB

Historisch Geluidsarchief RUU
 
Time period: 1932-1945
Number of interviews: 1 (1 person)
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: complete
Period of interviews: 19 January 1967
Remarks:

Type onderzoek: scientific

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Beeld & Geluid. Digitization can, however, be requested from Beeld & Geluid via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl

Medium: 1 audio tape
 

R.L. Schuursma interviewed F.W. Wessels about fascism, the NSB and World War II. Wessels is known for his flyer called De N.S.B.-Leiding ontmaskerd. De bloem der natie (1936). He also wrote Ik beschuldig! Mijn antwoord aan Ir. Mussert N.S.B.-aanslag op de A.V.R.O. “De Telegraaf” werd misleid (1936).

 

As a former NSB Propaganda Inspector for Drenthe and North Overijssel, he criticized Mussert in these two writings. He addressed the self-enrichment by the NSB leadership, for example, by revealing Mussert’s salary. Moreover, he revealed that the NSB was trying to get reliable members to infiltrate all possible Dutch associations and clubs. As a former NSB member and whistleblower, Wessels possesses important information about the functioning of the early NSB.

Piet van der Ham

Voormalig Stichting Film en Wetenschap
 
Time period: 1910-1995
Number of interviews: 1 (1 person)
Accessibility: Restricted
Transcripts: None
Period of interviews: 1995
Remarks:

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: zakelijk@beeldengeluid.nl 

Medium: 3 cassette tapes
 

The interview with Piet van der Ham (born 1910) was made as part of Renate Bergsma’s research internship at SFW in 1995. It was incorporated into her doctoral thesis “Do you speak film? The Catholic filmmaker Piet van der Ham, Amsterdam (doctoral thesis Cultural Studies, UvA), 1995. Under the same title she published an article in the 1994 Yearbook Stichting Film en Wetenschap – Audiovisual Archive, Amsterdam: Stichting Film en Wetenschap, 1995, p.75-101.

 

Piet van der Ham has been characterized as a Catholic filmmaker. His “discovery” in 1936 as an amateur filmmaker by the filmmaker Otto van Neijenhoff was the impetus for a whole series of commissioned films from that angle. He was theoretically influenced by the Catholic ‘film pope’ Janus van Domburg and the writer-poet A.J.D. van Oosten and more generally by the aesthetic views of the Filmliga. With Van Oosten, he founded the Catholic film group Kafilgro. The amateur film Redt Volendam, made by Piet van der Ham and Goof Bloemen, can be found on the website of Beeld & Geluid.

 

During World War II he experimented with feature films, together with his friend Alfred Mazure, and worked as a photographer for the Internal Armed Forces. Over the years, he made many film journalistic contributions to newspapers such as De Tijd and de Maasbode and was associated with film magazines such as Filmfront and Filmforum. He was also involved in the Catholic Film Censorship Board. After the war, he made a number of films for the KVP, including the well-known De Opdracht (1956). He also made several corporate films and produced news items for Polygoon and the NTS. Finally, Van der Ham taught film and photography in The Hague.