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The 1930s

Voormalig Stichting Film en Wetenschap / Martin Schouten
Time period: 1930-1940
Number of interviews: 13 (13 persons)
Accessibility: Restricted
Transcripts: Transcription De Vink missing, rest is complete
Period of interviews: 1975-1980

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: 

Medium: 1 audiotape, 23 cassette tapes

Voor de Oorlog – Herinneringen aan de jaren 30, Martin Schouten, De Bezige Bij, ISBN: 9789023452843.



The interviewees speak from their distinct positions about their experiences in the 1930s. The interviews were incorporated into Schouten’s book: Voor de Oorlog – Herinneringen aan de jaren ’30, Amsterdam: De Bezige Bij, 1982; also published as a two-volume edition by the Stichting Burgerschapskunde/Nederlands Centrum voor Politieke Vorming in 1981.



  • Hendrik Algra, teacher, chairman of the ARP electoral association in Leeuwarden den and from 1935 to 1978 editor-in-chief of the Friesch Dagblad, speaks admiringly of Colijn.
  • Pieter Both, one of the first KLM pilots since 1928, talks about his experiences in the early years of (civilian) aviation.
  • Jenny Brus, daughter of a station restaurant owner in Zevenaar, tells how things were in the 1930s when the D-trains with (Jewish) refugees from Germany arrived and many were detained at the station and sent back moments later. Only a few were able to stay or were given the opportunity to travel on to the United States, for example.
  • Elly Bysterus Heemskerk, a violinist with the Concertgebouw Orchestra from 1914-1951, talks about conductors Willem Mengelberg and Pierre Monteux, among others, and about her house on Koninginneweg, which was requisitioned by the Germans in 1940.
  • Leo Corsius, a socialist crane operator at the Sphinx earthenware factory in Maastricht, talks about his experiences in the modern union and the problems it caused in the Catholic stronghold. Regularly in the conversation, the 1929 strike at the Zinc White factory pops up.
  • Frits Günther, CPN member from Amsterdam, recounts his experiences in the International Brigade in the Spanish Civil War. He was in Spain from 1937 to 1939 and was wounded twice. Upon his return, he managed to evade the Dutch authorities for some time but nevertheless “joining foreign military service” still cost him his Dutch citizenship for ten years.
  • Sjeng Hardy, employee of the Maastricht Sphinx earthenware factory, talks about the hard life and work in the thirties, in which there was a constant threat of dismissal.
  • Frans Laheij, chief of three stamping offices in Maastricht – respectively for the organized in the Catholic and Socialist trade unions and for the unorganized – recounts his experiences with support workers, the clergy and the municipality.
  • Stan Poppe, city councilor for the SDAP in Ede and Zaandam, respectively. In 1932 he joined the left-wing opposition to the OSP led by Jacques de Kadt. This membership meant his dismissal in 1934 as an employee of the state tax department, because the OSP appeared on the list of organizations banned for civil servants established in 1933. Thereupon he founded publishing house De Vlam for the party, which continued to exist long after the OSP and Henk Sneevliet’s RSP merged into RSAP in 1935. In ’37, however, he was forced to resign from the party in order to return to his old job.
  • Jozef Rosenberg, a shopkeeper in Zevenaar, talks about his work for refugees arriving in the border region from Germany and Austria. He tried to do as much as he could for the people through Dutch refugee committees. Jewish himself, he and his family survived the war in hiding.
  • Jan Rot, political cartoonist and one of the foremen of the SDAP in Amsterdam, tells about the secession of the oppositional Fakkelgroep (after the magazine De Fakkel) within the SDAP in 1932 and the subsequent founding of the OSP. He himself remained in the SDAP and for many years was chairman of the Amsterdam Department 9: Jordaan and Kinkerbuurt. He also talks about the Labor Plan and about his (drawing) work for the magazine Labor Freedom Bread of the Bureau for Action and Propaganda against Fascism and Communism: Buracprop for short.
  • Pi Scheffer, educator and trombonist/arranger, recounts his experiences as a semi-professional (jazz) musician in the pre-war dance orchestra The Blue Ramblers and his encounters with Coleman Hawkins, Django Reinhardt and others. After the war, he became the leader of the AVRO dance orchestra The Skymasters.
  • Koos de Vink talks about his poverty-stricken childhood in Leiden, his political sympathies and his friendship with Marinus van der Lubbe, the young Dutch communist who was sentenced to death in Germany in 1933 for setting fire to the Reichstag building in Berlin.

Utrecht during World War II

Voormalig Stichting Film en Wetenschap
Time period: 1940-1945
Number of interviews: 22 (24 persons)
Accessibility: Restricted
Transcripts: None
Period of interviews: 1978

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: 

Medium: 11 audiotapes

The interviewees are all people from Utrecht who talk about their experiences in daily life and work during the occupation period 1940-45. They discuss: the German invasion in May 1940, raids in Utrecht and the NSB. Leo van Rhenen conducted the interviews out of interest in (daily) life in Utrecht during World War II.

War Reporting

Stichting Film en Wetenschap
Time period: 1940-1970
Number of interviews: 12 (12 persons)
Accessibility: restricted
Transcripts: None
Period of interviews: 1978

The interviews have not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Beeld & Geluid. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision at:

Medium: 44 audiotapes

The idea for the interviews and the three-part documentary series is based on the book: The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero and Myth-Maker from the Crimea to Kosovo, Phillip Knightley, Johns Hopkins University Press, ISBN: 9780801869518

The interviews were made on behalf of the three-part documentary series De waarheid ligt op het slagveld (16mm film), which Roelof Kiers made for VPRO television about the role of reporters in various wars. Jan Blokker, a Dutch journalist, also helped to create the series. The documentaries was broadcast on November 26 and December 3 and 10, 1978 and lasted a total of 5 hours and 45 minutes. In the VPRO guides of the weeks in which the series was broadcast, background articles relating to the episode under discussion were included.


The first episode, subtitled “…or should I hold my tongue?”, features an interview with Ross Munroe in addition to an overview of reporting from the Crimean War through the Vietnam War. Munroe, a Canadian war correspondent, talks in the interview, among other things, about the raid on Dieppe in August 1942 and what he had to consider in his reporting at the time. The second episode, titled “It was all rock and roll,” incorporates interviews with American reporters of the Vietnam War: Peter Arnett (Associated Press), David Halberstam (New York Times; Pulitzer Prize winner), photographer Tim Page (Life, Time) and CBS television reporter Jack Laurence. The third installment, “Bitte, berichten Sie,” features excerpts from Kiers’ conversations with some of the journalists who provided news coverage on the side of Nazi Germany during World War II. They were then united in the so-called Propaganda Kompanien (PK): Katzke (cameraman east front), Riegger (leader PK team west and east front), Stephan (leader department PK press Propagandaministerium), Viertel (radio reporter east front) and Heysing (journalist west and east front). Interviews that were not included in the series are the interviews with PK reporters Nannen and Ritter von Schramm.

Eurocommunism and the Cold War

Stichting Film en Wetenschap
Time period: 1940-1970
Number of interviews: 16 (16 persons)
Accessibility: Restricted
Transcripts: None
Period of interviews: 1977

All interviews can be found on the Sound & Vision website.

Medium: 27 Audiotapes

The interviews were conducted for the VPRO television film Socialisme met een menselijk gezicht, which was never broadcast. The interviewees talk about Eurocommunism and the implications of the Cold War. They are all ex-communists and/or Eurocommunists. In particular, the Eastern European among them were expelled from the respective communist parties as dissidents at some point in their countries of origin. All interviews can be found on the Sound & Vision website. The interview with Djilas was conducted in Serbian, the other interviews in English, German or French.



  • Manuel Ascarate was head of International Relations of the Spanish Communist Party and second in command after leader Carrillo.
  • Giuseppe Boffa, one of the leaders of the Italian Communist Party, was editor of the Communist daily L’Unità.
  • The German Margarete Buber-Neumann, a former employee of the Comintern, was interned with her husband Heinz Neumann during a stay in the Soviet Union in the 1930s for opposing Stalin’s policies. In 1940, she was handed over to the Gestapo and subsequently spent five years in the Ravensbrück concentration camp.
  • Milovan Djilas was a close associate of Yugoslav leader Tito.
  • Ferenc Donath, as one of the secretaries of the Hungarian Communist Party at the time of the 1956 Hungarian Uprising, was a close associate of (then briefly) Prime Minister Imre Nagy.
  • Jean Elleinstein was an advocate of Eurocommunism in France.
  • Andràs Hegedüs, former prime minister of Hungary, was a longtime loyal member of the Communist Party. During the 1956 Hungarian Uprising, he was a warm supporter of intervention by the Russian army. He later went to Russia where he eventually turned away from the party and became a dissident.
  • Wilhelm Hoegner was a member of parliament for the Social Democratic Party in Germany during the Weimar Republic.
  • Leszek Kolakowski (born 1927), a Polish philosopher, was expelled from the Communist Party of Poland in 1966 for criticizing the official party line and dismissed a few years later as a professor at the University of Warsaw. After spending a short time in Britain, he emigrated to Canada. His well-known, three-volume study of the history of Marxism was published in the late 1970s.
  • Wolfgang Leonhard worked on the development of the GDR after the war as a close associate of later SED party leader Walter Ulbricht.
  • Arthur London was one of the members of the Czech Communist Party who stood trial in the so-called Slánsky trial in the early 1950s.
  • Zdenek Mlynár (born 1930) was secretary of the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party and a close associate of party leader Alexander Dubcek, the symbol of the Prague Spring. Among other things, he wrote the political part of the 1968 program of action of the Czechoslovak Communist Party. In 1970, he was expelled from the party. He was one of the founders of Charta 77 and was subsequently forced to leave his country. He emigrated to Austria.
  • Jiri Pelikan was director general of Czechoslovak television during the Prague Spring.
  • Marian Sling is the widow of Ota Sling, for a time party secretary of the Brno district in Czechoslovakia. In the early 1950s he and others were sentenced to death in the so-called Slánský trial.
  • Lord Strang chaired the British delegation in the 1939 negotiations between England and France on one side and the Soviet Union on the other.
  • Predrag Vranicki was a Yugoslav Marxist philosopher and rector of the University of Zagreb.
  • Kamil Winter was head of the Information Programs Department of Czechoslovak television in 1968.

Jean Rouch and Nigerian cinema

Philo Bregstein
Time period: (1940 - ...)
Number of interviews: 14 (12 people)
Accessibility: restricted
Transcripts: none
Period of interviews: 1977

Type interview: journalism

This collection has not been digitalized and can therefore not be viewed directly by Beeld & Geluid. Digitization, however, can be requested from Beeld & Geluid at:


In DAAN, the digital archive of Beeld & Geluid the following item can be found: Jean Rouch en zijn camera in het hart van Afrika 14-03-1978 NOS, Bregstein’s film for which the interviews were used

Medium: 23 audio tapes

The interviews were made on behalf of Bregstein’s television film Jean Rouch en zijn camera (1978) about French filmmaker and ethnologist Jean Rouch (1917-2004). Rouch was an idiosyncratic director, often starting a new film without a clear approach. Initially, he recorded as much material as possible with uninterrupted shots. Then this realistic material was incorporated into a film, which characterized the cinéma verité. Rouch spent most of his life in Niger.


In the interviews, Rouch talks, among other things, about his insights regarding film, the use of different types of cameras and about his work at the Musée de l’Homme in Paris. He also tells Bregstein, as they drive through Niger in a car, about the country and his contacts with it. In addition, Bregstein speaks with several Nigerian individuals who have worked with Rouch.


The following individuals were interviewed:

  • Jean Rouch
  • Moustapha Alassane (1942-2015) and Oumara Ganda (1935-1981), both filmmakers from Niger. Ganda also starred in Jean Rouch’s famous film Moi, un noir.
  • Inoussa Ousseini (1949-2021), filmmaker and staff member of the audiovisual department of the Institut de Recherches et Sciences Humaines (IRSH) in Niamey, Niger. Rouch was long the head of this department.
  • Boube Gado, belongs to the department of archaeology and prehistory of the IRSH
  • Michel Keita, belongs to the socioeconomics department of the IRSH
  • Dioulde Laya (1937-2014), sociologist, attached to the Centre d’études linguistiques des traditions orales
  • Djingarei Maiga (1939-now), was employed as a cameraman at the IRSH
  • Idrissa Meiga, transported film crews with his prau
  • Damouré Zika, Lam Ibrihama Dia and Tallou Mouzourane, they formed the film collective DaLaRouTa with Rouch. Together they made the films Jaguar, Petit à Petit and Cocorico.


The interviews are in French.

Papua: a history

Time period: 1920-2004
Number of interviews: 36
Accessibility: public
Period of interviews: 2000-2004

The collection will be public and accessible during 2023. The collection can then only be accessed in the reading room or listened to online via a protected environment (password required).
The files cannot be downloaded.


The interviews were conducted as part of Dirk Vlasblom’s publication Papua: a history. This book covers five centuries of Papua’s history, focusing on the period from 1945 onwards and with a special focus on the transfer from the Netherlands to Indonesia in 1962. The book focuses on the perspective of Papuans.

The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1920 – 2004.
They mainly discuss Indonesia and West Papua. Themes include World War II, Indonesian revolution, transfer to Indonesia in 1962, occupation.


The collection has been digitised and stored permanently at an e-depot.

Papoea: Een geschiedenis

Vlasblom, D. 

University Press, Amsterdam, 2004

ISBN 90-5330-399-5
9 789053-303993

Dirk Vlasblom (1952) studied cultural anthropology in Utrecht. With a brief interruption, he has been a correspondent for NRC Handelsblad in Jakarta since 1990. He previously published Jakarta, Jakarta – Reportages from Indonesia (1993), In a warung on the South Sea – Stories from Indonesia (1998) and Anchors & Chains – A Rotterdam Chronicle (2001).
In a compelling way, the author tells the stories of Papua. For this, he drew on unique sources. Protagonists and eyewitnesses speak for themselves, often for the first time. The archives of mission and mission were systematically researched for this book, also for the first time.
With this magisterial work, the author gives the Papuans their history.

The history of South Sulawesi

KITLV / W.T. IJzereef
Time period: 1905-1986
Number of interviews: 15
Accessibility: public
Transcripts: Interview reports available
Period of interviews: 1981-1985

The material can be requested via the online catalogue of UB Leiden. The recordings can be listened to in the Special Collections Reading Room.

Medium: cassettebandjes

IJzereef, W.T., De wind en de bladeren : hiërarchie en autonomie in Bone en Polombangkeng (Zuid-Sulawesi), 1850-1950. Proefschrift Groningen, 1994. 



De Zuid-Celebes affaireKapitein Westerling en de standrechtelijke executies

Willem IJzereef

Uitgeverij de Bataafsche Leeuw B.V.

For his research on the history of South Sulawesi, in particular political-military developments during the Indonesian revolution, Willem IJzereef conducted some 15 interviews with former government officials and former military personnel.
Records of the interviews and research correspondence are also included in the archive.


The interviews focus on events and experiences in the years 1905 – 1986.
They mainly discuss Indonesia, South Sulawesi. Themes include World War II, Indonesian revolution, Domestic Administration, government officials, South Celebes affair.


Publications linked to the collection: IJzereef, W. (1984). The South Celebes affair: captain Westerling
and the summary executions. Batavian Lion.


Archive and inventory no: D H 1284. Thirteen cassette tapes have been transferred to the AV collection of the KITLV (D AUD 1085 – 1097)

Camp Amersfoort

VPRO / Hans Verhagen
Time period: 1939-1969
Number of interviews: 25
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: yes
Period of interviews: 1977-1978

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via:

In DAAN, the digital archive of Sound & Vision the following item can be found: the documentary for which the interviews were made: De geschiedenis van een plek 14-05-1978 VPRO

Medium: 12 sound tapes

Title: Geschiedenis van een Plek, concentratiekamp Amersfoort

Authors: Armando, Hans Verhagen en Maud Keus

Publisher: De Bezige Bij, 1980

ISBN: 9789023452683

The interviews were made for the three-hour documentary film History of a Place, which Hans Verhagen made together with Armando in 1978 for VPRO television about the concentration camp Amersfoort (municipality of Leusden). They approach their subject as the history of the (‘guilty’) site. Discussed are: the origins of the camp in 1939 as an army site for mobilised Dutch soldiers, its function as the German occupier’s concentration camp during World War II, its use as a repatriation camp the first months after liberation and as an internment camp for Dutch SS and NSB members immediately afterwards, its demolition in the late 1960s in favour of the new building for the De Boskamp Police Training Centre. The focus, however, is on the period when the camp served as a concentration camp for the German occupiers.


The film was broadcast as the final episode of the series Het gat van Nederland, on 14 May 1978. Many of the interviews are partly conducted walking, including a film camera, through the area around the camp.

As ex-prisoners, Van Dam, Kleinveld, Molenaar, Zoetmulder, Wolders, Van den Burg, Van den Berg, Robeer, chaplain Slots and Schols recount their experiences in the camp. They had mostly ended up there because of resistance activities. They talk about the camp executioners Berg and Kotälla, among others. Also
The following are also interviewed: the contractor who built the barracks in 1939 (Herzinger); the caretaker of the cemetery near the camp, who buried the dead from the camp but also smuggled the living from the site (Jansen); a municipal worker from Leusden who helped prisoners escape whenever possible,
sending letters etcetera (Schut); the son of the owner of Hotel Oud-Leusden, which had been requisitioned by the Germans during the occupation period and was located right next to the camp (Jets); the house painter who painted the barracks both in 1939 and in 1945, shortly after liberation (Van Hoven); the camp’s Amersfoort vegetable supplier (Van Zomeren); the demolisher of the last barracks in the late 1960s (Van Essen); the German Engbrocks, who had been living in the Netherlands for some time before the war, and who was trained as a punishment to become an SS camp guard in Amersfoort in 1941, and was called the “good German” by many prisoners because he tried to help them the employee of the Dutch Red Cross Van Overheem, who, especially in the last year of the war, tried to get as many food parcels into the camp as possible and who was called the ‘white angel of Amersfoort’ by the prisoners (she also played an important role in the camp in the few months it served as a repatriation centre for Dutch people returning from Germany); the camp commander after the liberation (Van Zwol); the director of the Police Training School De Boskamp, whose institute was established on the site in the late 1960s (Steenlaar); some unnamed students and a sports teacher from the police training school on the past of the site in short interviews.


Interviewees: Frans van de Berg, Jan van den Burg, N. van Dam, Willy Engbrocks, R. van Essen, H. Hertzinger, A. van Hoven, Evert Jansen, Martin Jets, Gerrit Kleinveld, Rev. O. Molenaar, mrs. van Overheem, Henk Robeer, Joep Schols, Arie Schut, Jean Slots, M. van Steenlaar, Hans Wolders, S.H.A.M. Zoetmulder, A. van Zomeren, C. van Zwol, some anonymous persons.

Anton Mussert

Paul Verhoeven
Time period: 1910-1946
Number of interviews: 16
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: summary
Period of interviews: 1967

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization, however, can be requested through Sound & Vision.


The following items can be found in DAAN, the digital archive of Sound & Vision:

  • Two of the 16 interviews, the interview with F. Rost van Tonningen and with E.J. Roskam;
  • Portrait of Anton Adriaan Mussert, a film by Paul Verhoeven;
  • Anton Mussert, a 1966 university film, a compilation of excerpts from propaganda films.


Medium: 6 audio tapes

The interviews were made on behalf of Verhoeven’s film Portret van Anton Adriaan Mussert (1968, 16mm, 55′). Hans Keller and Leo Kool also worked on this film.

Verhoeven created this portrait of Anton Mussert on behalf of the VPRO. He broke with tradition and held interviews with former members of the NSB. The VPRO was aware of these interviews but changed their mind a year before the documentary aired. Verhoeven was forced to make some small changes to the documentary before it was aired.


It was broadcast by VPRO television on 16 April 1970 and repeated on 20 August 1989 as part of the series TVTOEN. or: How Dutch television writes history, which also covered the problems surrounding the first broadcast. These are also described when discussing the film in Chris Vos, Television and Occupation. A study of the documentary portrayal of World War II in the Netherlands, Hilversum: Verloren, 1995, pp.126-127.

Film and the interviews outline the life course of Mussert (1894-1946): his HBS days; studying civil engineering at the Technical High School in Delft; his work at the Provincial Water Authority in Utrecht, since 1921 as engineer and later as chief engineer director until his resignation in 1934; the importance of his activities as secretary of the committee against the 1925 Belgo-Dutch Treaty for his further political ambitions; the establishment of the NSB in 1931; his role within the NSB and that during the German occupation; his arrest in May 1945; his internment in the penal prison at Scheveningen; the trial in November 1945; his execution on 7 May 1946.


The following people were interviewed:

  • Dibbits was a colleague of Mussert’s at Rijkswaterstaat.
    As chief inspector after the war, Van Dien was in charge of supervising Mussert during his internment.
  • Hartman was an admirer of Mussert and fought on the Eastern Front during World War II.
  • Kleijn was a classmate of Mussert’s.
  • Knigge, De Lange and Lemoin[e] had joined the Dutch SS, founded by Mussert, during the occupation. Knigge and Lemoin[e] also fought on the Eastern Front.
  • Koren was a colleague of Mussert’s at Rijkswaterstaat. Among other things, he talks about the relationship between Mussert and Van Geelkerken, with whom Mussert founded the NSB in 1931 and who also worked at
  • Krabbendam was the commander of the arrest teams of the Internal Armed Forces (BS), which arrested Mussert on 7 May 1945.
  • Van der Laan was a teacher of Mussert at the HBS in Gorkum.
  • Roskam was the peasant leader of the NSB.
  • F. Rost van Tonningen had been a member of the NSB since 1936 as youth leader and, since 1941, the wife of Mussert’s rival the NSB leader Meinoud Rost van Tonningen. She talks about Mussert’s motives and the relationship between him and her husband.
  • Schermerhorn studied at the TH in Delft at about the same time as Mussert; both graduated in 1918, albeit in different fields of study. In the interview, Schermerhorn talks about the student and engineer Mussert and about the letters the latter wrote him from captivity concerning their personal relationship. Schermerhorn was prime minister of the first post-war national cabinet at the time of Mussert’s execution.
  • Smit recounts Mussert’s execution.
  • Van der Vaart Smit was a leader of a Christian circle and secretly a member of the NSB. However, he opposed the German occupier’s equalisation of education and the persecution of Jews and eventually dropped out. Incidentally, he talks about the relationship between Mussert and Rauter.
  • Mr Zaayer had already met Mussert in the 1920s in connection with the organisation of the protests against the Belgium-Netherlands treaty of 1925 (cf. also the interview with Zaayer in: SFW work issue no. 8, p.53). After World War II, he was one of Mussert’s accusers as procurator fiscal of the Special Court in The Hague.


Interviewer: Paul Verhoeven




Heerlen WW-II

Thermen Museum / Jos Hoogeveen
Time period: 1940-1944
Number of interviews: 15
Accessibility: for research purposes
Transcripts: no
Period of interviews: 1983-1984

The collection has not yet been digitized and therefore cannot be viewed directly at Sound & Vision. Digitization can, however, be requested from Sound & Vision via: 

Eveneens voor de goede orde. Heerlen in oorlogstijd, 1940-1944

Auteur: Jos Hoogeveen
Uitgever: Winants B.V., Boekhandel En Uitgeverij, 1984
ISBN: 9789070001087



The interviews were conducted for the purposes of Jos Hoogeveen’s book ‘Even for the record. Heerlen in wartime, 1940-1944


The interviewees are former resistance fighters, who talk about their experiences during World War II in Heerlen until the liberation of that city in 1944.



  • A. Bemelmans
  • A. van Brink
  • J. Corrips
  • J. Crasborn
  • A. Damen
  • L. Jans
  • J. Cologne
  • J. Lemmens
  • A. Paulen
  • Mr Ramackers
  • W. van Roest
  • O. Schumacher
  • T. Spreksel
  • P. Stoks
  • Br. Winkelmolen


German army raid in Heerlen, 10 May 1940. After the occupation of Heerlen, several former Dutch soldiers became active in the resistance. (Rijckheyt Collection)